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Variables Associated With Full-Time Faculty Appointment Among Contemporary U.S. Medical School Graduates: Implications for Academic Medicine Workforce Diversity

Andriole, Dorothy A. MD; Jeffe, Donna B. PhD; Hageman, Heather L. MBA; Ephgrave, Kimberly. MD; Lypson, Monica L. MD; Mavis, Brian PhD; McDougle, Leon MD, MPH; Roberts, Nicole K. PhD

doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181e10159

Purpose The authors sought to identify variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointment among recent medical graduates.

Method With institutional review board approval, the authors developed a database of individualized records for six midwestern medical schools' 1997–2002 graduates. Using multivariate logistic regression, they identified variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointment from among demographic, medical-school-related, and career-intention variables. They report adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results Of 1,965 graduates in the sample, 263 (13.4%) held full-time faculty appointments in 2007–2008, including 14.4% (123/853) of women graduates and 8.6% (17/198) of underrepresented minority (URM) graduates. Women (OR: 1.386; 95% CI: 1.023–1.878), MD/PhD program graduates (OR: 2.331; 95% CI: 1.160–4.683), and graduates who reported a career-setting preference for “full-time university faculty” on the Association of American Medical Colleges' Graduation Questionnaire (OR: 3.164; 95% CI: 2.231–4.486) were more likely to have a full-time faculty appointment. Graduates who chose family medicine (OR: 0.433; 95% CI: 0.231–0.811) and surgical specialties (OR: 0.497; 95% CI: 0.249–0.994) were less likely to have a full-time faculty appointment. URM race/ethnicity was not independently associated with full-time faculty appointment (OR: 0.788; 95% CI: 0.452–1.375).

Conclusions Efforts to increase representation of women graduates in academic medicine seem to have met with greater success than efforts to increase representation of URM graduates. Greater participation of URM students in MD/PhD programs and in interventions during medical school that promote interest in academic medicine careers may increase URM graduates' representation in academic medicine.

Dr. Andriole is associate professor of surgery and assistant dean for medical education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Dr. Jeffe is research associate professor of medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Ms. Hageman is director, Educational Planning and Program Assessment, Office of Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Dr. Ephgrave is professor of surgery, University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.

Dr. Lypson is associate professor of internal medicine and assistant dean of graduate medical education, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Dr. Mavis is director, Office of Medical Education Research and Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan.

Dr. McDougle is assistant professor of family medicine and assistant dean for diversity and cultural affairs, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio.

Dr. Roberts is assistant professor of medical education and director, Academy for Scholarship in Education, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois.

Please see the end of this article for information about the authors.

Correspondence should be addressed to Dr. Andriole, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8210, St. Louis, MO 63110; telephone: (314) 362-4312; fax: (314) 362-7204; e-mail:

© 2010 Association of American Medical Colleges