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Making Interprofessional Education Work: The Strategic Roles of the Academy

Ho, Kendall MD; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra PhD; Borduas, Francine MD; Frank, Blye PhD; Hall, Pippa MD, MEd; Handfield-Jones, Richard MD; Hardwick, David F. MD; Lockyer, Jocelyn PhD; Sinclair, Doug MD; Lauscher, Helen Novak PhD; Ferdinands, Luke MEd; MacLeod, Anna PhD; Robitaille, Marie-Anik; Rouleau, Michel MD

Academic Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181850a75
Interprofessional Education
Abstract

Faculties (i.e., schools) of medicine along with their sister health discipline faculties can be important organizational vehicles to promote, cultivate, and direct interprofessional education (IPE). The authors present information they gathered in 2007 about five Canadian IPE programs to identify key factors facilitating transformational change within institutional settings toward successful IPE, including (1) how successful programs start, (2) the ways successful programs influence academia to bias toward change, and (3) the ways academia supports and perpetuates the success of programs. Initially, they examine evidence regarding key factors that facilitate IPE implementation, which include (1) common vision, values, and goal sharing, (2) opportunities for collaborative work in practice and learning, (3) professional development of faculty members, (4) individuals who are champions of IPE in practice and in organizational leadership, and (5) attention to sustainability. Subsequently, they review literature-based insights regarding barriers and challenges in IPE that must be addressed for success, including barriers and challenges (1) between professional practices, (2) between academia and the professions, and (3) between individuals and faculty members; they also discuss the social context of the participants and institutions. The authors conclude by recommending what is needed for institutions to entrench IPE into core education at three levels: micro (what individuals in the faculty can do); meso (what a faculty can promote); and macro (how academic institutions can exert its influence in the health education and practice system).

Author Information

Dr. Ho is director, eHealth Strategy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. Jarvis-Selinger is assistant professor and associate research director, Division of Continuing Professional Development and Knowledge Translation, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. Borduas is associate professor and associate director, Continuing Professional Development Office, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Laval, Canada.

Dr. Frank is professor and head, Division of Medical Education, and head, Department of Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

Dr. Hall is associate professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Dr. Handfield-Jones is assistant dean of continuing medical education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Dr. Hardwick is special advisor on planning, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. Lockyer is associate dean, Continuing Medical Education and Professional Development, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Dr. Sinclair is associate dean, Continuing Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

Dr. Novak Lauscher is director of research, Division of Continuing Professional Development and Knowledge Translation, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Mr. Ferdinands is executive director, Division of Continuing Professional Development and Knowledge Translation, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. MacLeod is project manager, National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Canada.

Ms. Robitaille is research coordinator, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Laval, Canada.

Dr. Rouleau is director, Centre de Développement Professionnel Continu, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Laval, Canada.

Please see the end of this article for information about the authors.

Correspondence should be sent to Dr. Ho, Director, eHealth Strategy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 855 West Tenth Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L7; telephone: (604) 875-4111, ext. 69152; fax: (604) 875-5078; e-mail: (kho@cpdkt.ubc.ca).

© 2008 Association of American Medical Colleges